The stratum corneum, poses a formidable challenge to formulators of drug delivery systems. Several approaches have been utilized to facilitate entry of drugs into the lower skin layers. Traditionally, permeation enhancers were designed to deliver high drug concentrations across the skin into the systemic circulation. The use of many of these agents resulted in unpleasant or toxic side effects. However, in recent years there has been a search for compounds that exhibit low toxicity, and maintain their enhancing activity. More recently, there has been interest in agents that may be used in topical formulations to prevent the passage of active ingredients or excipients into the lower skin layers.
Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers
Percutaneous penetration enhancers: an overview.
A popular approach for improving transdermal drug delivery involves the use of penetration enhancers sorption promoters or accelerants which penetrate into skin to reversibly reduce the barrier resistance. Synthetic chemicals solvents, azones, pyrrolidones, surfactants etc. Hence, they appear to offer great promise for use in transdermal formulations. This article is aimed at reviewing the mechanisms responsible for percutaneous permeation enhancement activity of terpenes, which shall foster their rational use in transdermal formulations. The skin acts as a barrier for diffusion of substances into the body.
Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This truly comprehensive reference, in a mini-series format with five volumes, offers a detailed description of both well-known and recently introduced methods for percutaneous penetration enhancement. The first three volumes are devoted to the broad range of chemical methods used to enhance the skin delivery of drugs, including the vast variety of chemical penetration enhancers, drug and vehicle manipulation strategies, nanocarriers, and many others.